Accuracy in Media

The Fox Business Network (FBN) should be congratulated for launching a six-month investigation into the Federal Aviation Administration’s hiring practices, an investigation revealing complicity between the FAA and diversity groups such as the National Black Coalition of Federal Aviation Employees (NBCFAE). The findings were revealed on “The Willis Report” last week on FBN.

The investigation resulted in an article by Adam Shapiro, exposing a story of corruption and attempts to stoke favoritism, where an FAA employee and head of an NBCFAE chapter worked to increase the likelihood that minority candidates would succeed under the FAA’s new hiring practices.

Ironically, one minority applicant, Matthew Douglas, a Native American, received “a perfect score, 100, on the FAA’s old screening test called the Air Traffic Selection and Training exam, or AT-SAT,” Shapiro reports. The FAA disregarded Douglas’ scores and the scores and qualifications of about 3,000 other graduates from accredited programs, according to Shapiro.

“Like several other young men and women pursuing air traffic control degrees, Douglas borrowed thousands of dollars, $30,000 in his case, to earn an FAA accredited degree from programs the FAA calls Collegiate Training Initiative or CTI Schools,” writes Shapiro. “The FAA created the CTI program more than 20 years ago to provide the agency with a reliable source of qualified air traffic control applicants.”

Shapiro points out that “It takes several years of study to acquire the complex skills necessary to become an air traffic controller, or ATC.  It’s considered among the highest pressured jobs in America.”

What happened to Douglas is yet another scandal of the Obama administration, though no one in the media is calling it that. It’s one thing to lower standards when you’re filling positions at the Department of Commerce, or adding another bureaucrat at the Department of Transportation, where people’s lives are not at stake on a moment-by-moment basis. But doing so for air traffic controllers is truly an outrage, and a scandal.

“But just as Matthew Douglas prepared for a new year and a new life, the FAA dropped a bomb.  On December 30, 2013 the FAA threw out his AT-SAT score, CTI diploma and recommendations from his CTI program administrators,” reports Shapiro. “In fact, the FAA threw out the AT-SAT scores and CTI qualifications  of an estimated 3,000 CTI graduates and military veterans who were all previously designated ‘well qualified’ to become air traffic controllers. The FAA told them all to start over. But this time, when they applied for a job, their college degrees and previous military experience would mean nothing. They would now compete with thousands of people the agency calls ‘off the street hires;’ anyone who wants to, can walk in off the street without any previous training and apply for an air traffic control job. The FAA’s only requirements, to apply, are be a U.S. citizen, have a high school diploma, speak English and pass the FAA’s new BQ, Biographical Questionnaire. What Douglas and thousands of other CTI graduates didn’t know was that the FAA was planning these changes long before the agency made them public.”

But Moranda Reilly, a woman who scored lower on the same test for which Douglas scored a perfect 100, joined the NBCFAE, and received preferential treatment through the help of air traffic controller Shelton Snow. He sent her and other applicants a recorded message last February instructing them how to fill out the new take-home biographical questionnaire.

“Keep in mind we are trying to maximize your opportunities,” stated Snow, the local NBCFAE chapter president, in the recording, according to Shapiro. “I am going to send it out to each of you and as you progress through the stages refer to those images so you will know which icons you should select…I am about 99 point 99 percent sure that it is exactly how you need to answer each question in order to get through the first phase.”

“Reilly says Snow and other NBCFAE officials conducted workshops showing NBCFAE associate members…the correct answers to select on the [questionnaire] as well as key words to use on their resumés in order to be selected by FAA hiring personnel who were also NBCFAE members,” reports Shapiro.

In addition, according to Shapiro, “Candidates were, and still are, allowed to take the test unsupervised, on their own time and on their home computers over a two week period.”

On Friday, the NBCFAE denied the cheating allegations, though it failed to address any of the specific accusations.

Shapiro’s story outlining how the FAA is both wasting resources and threatening the security of America’s airlines, along with the flying public, received virtually no media attention. While The Wall Street Journal followed up on the story, they left out key details about the FAA’s ongoing corruption—casting the new hiring practices instead as the agency ending “an inside track,” while ignoring the perverse incentives created. But at least they reported on the issue. Most of the media chose to ignore it. AOL News actually carried a good story on it, clearly recognizing the Fox Business News story for uncovering a potential scandal. But in no way did AOL News link it to the policies of the Obama administration.

Shapiro’s story was really about a new inside track at the FAA—one based on diversity and preference instead of skill and merit as the primary criteria.

“Meanwhile, at least 28 controller applicants have brought discrimination claims against the FAA, including one seeking class-action status,” reports Susan Carey for The Wall Street Journal. “A redacted copy of that complaint alleges the FAA eliminated the preferential hiring list to discriminate against the scholastic group to benefit minority applicants even though, the complaint says, the earlier system wasn’t found to have hampered them.”

The widespread nature of this crisis should have indicated to Carey and other reporters that this issue needs to be investigated further.

Congress has shown an interest, as Congressman Randy Hultgren (R-IL) “is cosponsoring the Air Traffic Controllers Hiring Act of 2015 to force the FAA to abandon the BQ and restore preferred hiring status for CTI graduates and military veterans who score high enough on the AT-SAT to be designated ‘well qualified,’” reported Shapiro.

“The biggest objective is to make sure that our air travel is still the safest in the world and air traffic controllers are a big part of that,’” said Hultgren.

But the media are still ignoring the story. So what if our air traffic control centers are not based on merit? The safety of the flying public doesn’t hinge on having the best people in those towers, does it? Apparently some believe the goal of our federal government should be ethnic diversity consistent with the general population, not equal opportunity, regardless of the position being filled.

We wish the FAA would respect the flying public enough to treat its hiring practices like those of the National Basketball Association. The NBA could care less that, as of 2013, over three quarters of its players were African-American, whereas only 13% of all Americans were at that time. Is that because of discrimination, or because the NBA is a pure meritocracy? Only the best basketball players get to play. When it comes to air traffic safety, racially- and demographically-blind hiring standards should be applied across the country as well.



Comments

  • Jonathan Fath

    As much as this article is probably accurate, I stopped reading after “Obama Scandal,” because of the high level of inaccuracy. Thank you for taking a big problem caused by 10 people and turning it into a big time politics mud-sling. It would be great if CTI students could get representation without spinster journalists using them to wag their finger. I’d be ashamed.

  • Capnmikey

    Obama is the number one racist in America! After all, he was a “foreign student” at Columbia selected by Affirmative Action to go to Harvard after a muslim donated millions to same…he is living proof that any fool can become President of the United Sataes, and Commander-in-Chief of the brave men who protect us, even tho he cannot properly pronounce “corpsman”…and thinks people in Austri speak “Austrian”!! I guess he never learned of the Anschlaus in 1938! But he resembles Adoph more every day!

  • tompro97


    If the truth be known, this same thing happened years ago in the VA System. As a veteran and senior volunteer at my local VA Hospital, I have noted that hiring preferences have overloaded the employee system there with Afro-Americans.

    Many of these people appear to be totally unqualified for the jobs they are holding.

  • tompro97


    What a shallow, inane comment – obviously, you cannot be bothered with the truth, and when you are, you spew inanities like this.

  • dextermassolettisr

    How many other critical positions can one think of that can be turned over to Jihadis by the machinations of this evil regime and those that are traitors scattered amongst us?
    Each person involved is such criminality deserves far worse than anything a normal-thinking person would consider appropriate.
    No Amnesty, No Immunity, No Prisoners. Start at the top.

  • dextermassolettisr

    Thanks Jonathan Fath, for telling everyone You stop thinking after seeing the name Obama, being completely devoid of common sense.

  • extractr

    This is amazing and disturbing. Liberals truly are insane.

  • John Cunningham

    What’s the problem? This is exactly what the Liberal left wanted when they crowned Barack Obama. Outrage? Not in their publications. They don’t care what the Right thinks, they have the majority, and most of them don’t give a crap about anything but themselves. What we need is a 21st Century Inquisition. We also need a leader with steel balls. The only one who fits that qualification is Sarah Palin. Shame we burned her at the stake just like they did to Joan of Arc.

  • Eric Travis

    I am a CTI grad and this is not a “10 person scandal.” Over 3,000 CTI grads were affected. Countless hours of hard work was taken away when the FAA said they were no longer factoring in CTI degrees and ATSAT scores and the reasons for these changes from the start has been very suspicious. This isn’t an issue of affirmative action, this is an issue of outright discrimination and if the FAA officials responsible for aiding cheating are allowed to get away with this, what else will invulnerable bureaucrats be able to get away with? Not one other person who was given Snow’s answer key has come out to admit they cheated. Do you really want someone with a dishonest mentality controlling your aircraft?

  • Jonathan Fath

    Hey Eric,

    You misunderstood my comment. I am aware and very upset that thousands of students were affected by this. In fact, I have been lending aide in making this information public. In fact, of the hundreds of CTI grads I worked closely with over the last two years, I only know 2 that were accepted into the program. When I was referring to 10 people involved, I meant the program management team and support contractor that approved and administered the barrier study as well as the demographic itself.

    We’re on the same team, I was merely jabbing at some of the readership that thinks that the Barack administration underhandedly cooked up this in their free time. Exposure is like this is important.

  • Jonathan Fath

    Yeah, so I’ve been following this for almost two years now, participated in telecons with angry students, partnered in advocacy events, and spent a lot of my personal time understanding exactly what is going wrong here. This was a barrier analysis and demographic survey gone completely wrong, not the work of an administration, but a hand full of greedy contractors and a team of feds left astray.

    So to answer your question, yes I do have to stop thinking after seeing an accusation from somebody that watched a dateline report and decided to insert socio-political stupidity into a real, valid problem. I strongly suggest that you do some homework before proceeding with me, because I’ll school you hard, kid.

  • Jonathan Fath

    I know the truth, and it is as follows:

    This was a barrier analysis and demographic survey gone completely wrong, not the work of an administration, but a hand full of greedy contractors and a team of feds left astray.

    I educated myself on the topic, then I commented because I know what really happened. I’ve been following this for a long time, and participated in the inception of a lot of the advocacy. If you want to learn more, I can promise two things. One, the administration didn’t have a lick to do with it, in fact the congressional committee (mostly dem) shined light to give this story traction. Two, you’ll have new appreciation for the word inanity.

    Just let me know, and I’ll hit you with so many REAL news articles following this story with the truth (not bullshit bipartisanism) faster than you can say biplane.

  • Jonathan Fath

    Please, can we stop directing this toward the administration? This is a very specific problem caused by less than 10 people that didn’t do anything in that arena. The more you muck it up with power politics, the less shot these kids have at actually getting some action on having this fixed and a fair shot at the jobs they worked so hard for. I strongly encourage you all go back and read up on this subject before skewing the message.

  • KC

    THANK A USEFUL IDIOT .

  • Flame Boar

    What will you say when one of these unqualified people place a landing aircraft on the same runway as a plane beginning take off. When most passenger planes are landing, they can’t see straight down so they could very well land on another plane. This happened at LAX a few years ago, so it is not a theoretical concern.
    Just what will you call the cause of such a disaster?

  • Jonathan Fath

    Again, since you didn’t catch the 11 other times I’ve said this, I am all for CTI graduates getting priority in controller hires. It is a dangerous, stressful job that needs highly educated, tested, and focused individuals to do.

    The problems I have with this article have nothing to do with that. They are seeded in the fact that the idiot that wrote this claims that his publication is “accuracy in the media” when in reality, he did poor research and blamed this problem on the administration rather than the contractors that conducted the study and then helped some applicants cheat. They should be fired, taken to court, and the testing process should be revoked. Instead of pointing this out though, Rojer Arnoff decided to blame the executive branch of government. That’s not ok, in fact that drags this message through the mud. The CTI student initiative is not tabloid journalism, it’s bigger and doesn’t deserve a crappy publication ruining the message for it’s crappy readership.

    Side note, that accident that almost happened in LAX a few years ago almost happens 3 times a year, and not just on the runway. Commercial jets have come close to colliding in the states, and it happened in Switzerland in the early 2000’s. Pilots are trained to pull up when coming close to a collision, and unfortunately, both of them followed the rules…

  • psykomagician

    These “unqualified people” will go through initial occupational training at the FAA Academy (where there is a 25%+ failure rate) and then into 2-3 years of field training (with a loss rate of 25-40% depending on the facility – some failures, some “I don’t like this”). So by time they are actually controlling traffic, they will have will have demonstrated that they can do the job. If not, they will have been weeded out.

  • larry

    do any of you recall the statement by Hilary the whore, indicating what was needed was more “affirmative action” brain surgeons, though not hers of course… liberals have, in order to placate, and purchase the vote of, certain minority groups, set aside all logic in demanding unqualified individuals be awarded wholly unearned positions of authority and blatantly fraudulent certification of professionals that could never attain those positions by legitimate qualification standards… all this to assure a substandard individual gets to feel good about their lot in life, irrespective of their total inability to actually earn that right… so here’s an idea… lets bring the basketball hoops down to eight feet, so that individuals other than glandular freaks of a certain ilk can earn absurd overpayment for playing a child’s game and live, beyond all intelligent comprehension, at the top of our food chain… that suggestion would draw a loud call of racism, but allowing morons to open your skull, or direct a plane load of passengers is something you should shut up and accept… the silent, educated and self sufficient majority have sat on their asses for perhaps too long to ever return to sanity, and the coming anarchy is in no small measure due to their complacency, even complicity…americans have once again demonstrated they’re total stupidity by letting the inmates run the sanitarium…

  • Glen Davis

    You Obots are pathetically all the same. Not one of you has the balls to own up to the fact that literally ALL the problems we as a nation face today are basically the results of the moron Obama’s actions. He’s the one pushing this crap about “wage equality”. He’s the one who has failed to secure our borders, as well as encouraging illegals everywhere to “come on in and sign up for all the free stuff!”. He’s also the worst racist of them all, continually trying to incite rage and violence in the black community. His behavior is reprehensibly disgusting and we’re all quite well through with it.

    This arrogant, pompous ass has totally failed as a leader, and that failure is now coming home to roost. If we don’t stand up as a nation and do something and soon, he’s going to get many (more) of us killed, either by ISIS operatives here in the homeland, or by yet another deranged illegal alien. This is beyond serious now, and this fact is not lost on those of us paying attention. So face the facts, Jon.

  • Jonathan Fath

    Wow, do you know what’s hilarious? The immigration numbers came in today and the numbers have dropped sharply over the course of the last 4 years. In fact, we are under a million annually. The Washington Post just published that this morning.

    Thanks for turning the conversation away from CTI students, and toward your own ignorance. I really enjoyed reading this and then slapping you in the face with the immigration numbers. Let’s play again soon : )

  • Curt Scott

    You are all missing the point
    The reason for the change was due to the fact that neither the head of the FAA – Micheal Huerta, nor the FAA executive responsible for hiring – Vice President Joseph Teixeira – has any aviation experience whatsoever – NONE! ZERO! ZIP! NADA! And these two are responsible for this mess. The facts are, the CTI program produced qualified Graduates that exceeded the existing diversity ratios of the FAA ATC workforce. No one with any Aviation Experience (Pilot, Controller, Airport Operator, Airline Operator) would have made such a change without extensive discussion with experts with long operational backgrounds. The error is how these two incompetents got into those high positions without any valid operational background – and the root cause of that problem goes all the way back to the 1980s and President Reagan who came up the plan to replace, instead of the usual 200-300 political appointees, appoint over 5,000 in all the federal bureaucracies so Reagan would have people in the bureaucracies that he could trust. Since then, federal bureaucracies have steadily become less functional and more political. BUT – the immediate solution is to get the House Resolution HR 1964 to resurrect the Vets/CTI hiring system that provides qualified candidates to the FAA. After that legislation passes, then there needs to be a second effort to establish a system to vet people going into senior bureaucracy jobs so we don’t have a repeat of incompetents who know nothing running major government functions that are vital to the welfare of the country.

  • BillWestern

    Great post. Just another example of undeserving blacks taking OUR jobs! If they were smart, they would kick out the illegals, take those jobs and work themselves up maybe. Put is simple: blacks are stealing whites jobs. And women.

  • Fred Campbell

    They will be “weeded out” only if the final evaluators have the moral strength to stand up to the political zeitgeist. Unlikely.

  • DianeTS

    The head of the FAA, the administer, has always been a political appointee…this is nothing new and usually they have no aviation background…I know because I was a controller for over 30 years, one of the few Reagan didn’t fire! This is typical of the FAA. For a time they were placing people into Manager positions over controllers that were not Air Traffic Controller qualified (from Flight Service). Their reasoning was that they didn’t need to know anything because 1. they weren’t controlling traffic and 2. they were “managing” people and a manager could “manage” anywhere….it was a mess! I also taught at a CTI school after I retired so I know they heartbreak the CTI students are feeling in fact a number of them were my students…

  • DianeTS

    Wow…you blew all your arguments at least for me, when you told us about the collision in Switzerland….you are so wrong it’s funny. I know of what I speak as I was a controller for 30 years. There is NO rule that tells pilots to “pull up” in the event of a possible collision. What happened was that they were on a collision course and they were both equipped with TCAS…Traffic Collision and Avoidance System. The TCAS gives specific instructions to avoid the collision, either “Climb” or “Descend”. In this case the pilot of the DHL aircraft had a TCAS warning and was told to descend by his TCAS. The pilot of the other aircraft was told to climb by his TCAS. The controller however, made a mistake, and told the DHL pilot to climb. Pilots are trained to follow the instructions of the TCAS and NOT the controller. The DHL pilot DID NOT follow his TCAS and followed the controller’s instruction instead, the other pilot did follow his TCAS resulting in both climbing into each other. Had the DHL pilot followed the TCAS…the collision would not have happened. Perhaps you should do some more of the “Research” you claim to have done…doesn’t appear to be much done here.

  • Jonathan Fath

    You sir, also completely missed the point. None the less, thanks for educating us all on TCAS. I apologize for mistaking controller error with pilot error.

    Back to where we are, what does your comment have to do with the FAA CTI case? That’s where all of my “research” lyes, so please contribute to that, or stop trolling. my troll sword, and my patience are both waning with the series of idiotic comments I’ve had to deal with. Now you have to bring another ANSP in to prove blame in an accident that has nothing to do with this article other than the smallest portion of some persons comment. Gold star, bridge troll.

  • bill lewis

    It sounds like you’re one of these guys that gets told a bs story and believes it. The program was instituted by a militant prez looking to put black guys where they aren’t and the FAA is the largest target outside of maybe NASA…maybe. Of course they’re going to point to analysis. The firm that did the work is based out of Atlanta. I bet that doesn’t mean anything to you either. They were looking for someone to give them the answer that they wanted and they found them. Thats the way this stuff works, kid.

  • bill lewis

    No one’s buying this crap either. The immigration issue is the one thing everyday people see on the news and can relate to. Trying to argue that it’s not getting bigger everyday, citing some kind of bs survey, people will nod their head and then later tell their spouse that you’re an idiot. Get out of your echo-chamber.

  • Jonathan Fath

    Actually, I’m one of those guys that reads a story (similar to this one), then reads more stories about it, then asks questions, then reads more, then reaches a conclusion. It sounds like you, Bill Lewis, are the kind of guy that uses statements like “maybe NASA…Maybe (which is so grammatically incorrect it’s hilarious),” that are loaded with so much opinion and speculation, that guys like me can label you in the “false assumptions” category. Everything that is actually cited means everything to me. Unfortunately for you, saying slang and gender-bias statements such as “militant prez looking to put black guys where they aren’t (again, really poorly written)”, really discredits your word vomit of a statement.

    The answer they were looking for was diversity in the tower. The answer they received in this case was wrong, but still. In fact, what does that even mean? What is not looking for an answer? You understand the RFP process, right? That eliminates PPP discrimination and favoritism. May the best requirements win, as I always say.

    Please, read the board of labor statistics information, go into the barrier analysis, and focus on the real victims, the students. Political agenda aside, I’m sure we can both agree that that they’re getting the shaft here.

  • Jonathan Fath

    You understand that demographic and census surveys are used to validate a hypothesis, and not create one, right? Slant data and marketing statistics aside, it would be pretty difficult to fudge the numbers on the how many immigrants are entering a country annually since that system has been used for decades. I do believe it’s called THE CENSUS BUREAU. It’s kind of their job.

    Are you implying that a member of the census team is saying to them self right now “Barack is leaving office in 16 months, so I think I’m going to ‘lose’ the documentation on 10,000 immigrants just to make this guy look good and mess with the people,” for absolutely no reason other than political agenda (please say yes, please say yes)?

    I know it’s difficult for you to trust some news sources after getting fed bullshit from guys like Roger Aronoff, but still. To verify the immigration numbers, I read the post, then Reuters, then actually looked at the dept. statement. When I read this article, I noticed that this “journalist” is also the editor of the publication. Do you know what that means? He is the writer, the fact-checker, and the guy that is looking for revenue. My basis for commenting on this article was for fact-checking reasons. I even spoke to the head of the CTI movement, and industry profs to validate.

    In a nutshell, if you mean that living in an echo-chamber is a long collaborative process of news source checking, journalist credibility reviewing, and collaborating with the mentioned article parties, then yes, I live in a giant echo chamber of awesome filled with knowledge and wish that you would come and join me from inside the outhouse hole covered by the rock that you’ve been living in. In case you didn’t catch that, I said you live in a poop hole.

  • bill lewis

    I’ve got news for you, gay robot. This is an informal discussion. However, I completely understand how an academic like yourself would choose to discredit my statements like he’s grading some kind of term paper. Liberalism ends where common sense begins, dude. When you write things like “this is just a study gone wrong” …it sounds like you’ve only been listening to english majors your whole life and are actually a little bit dim. You may want to play lawyer and get all the facts but guess what? These kinds of things are covered up by a giant team of them! Washington is nothing but lawyers! …..ooops! Theres a generalization again! Quick, my impression of you (in a nerd voice) “actually the Washington metropolitan area consists of a diverse range of career fields which includes lawyers but is no way held exclusively to them and therefor invalidates your point”. See, I CAN talk like you! Just please don’t pretend that you’re doing any of these guys a favor by taking the governments word for this like it was some kind of mistake. Thinks about this for a second. If I am right (which all common sense points to me being so), do you really believe that they would set it up as some kind of study error if they weren’t completely comfortable defending it and blowing you off? Think less, Mitch McConnell and more Donald Trump. Maybe you’ll actually start getting some things done…besides of course, empathizing with losers.

  • bill lewis

    haha i’m just rereading your first paragraph about the census bureau and how its “their job” so the data is reliable. So you think that a person would come in here illegally and then admit it? Man, I would love to debate you in front of an audience. That would be the biggest ego trip ever. How old are you? I talk to you young guys and it’s like they dumbed down the schools so badly with all this diversity training that they completely eliminated the ability to think critically. I actually feel bad for you young guys. Its almost like you were brainwashed. Those were your formative years too, bro. You’re gonna be like a cool-aid drinking moron your whole life.

  • jdhunter

    It doesn’t register because it isn’t there. Faux News (business) lies.

  • jdhunter

    More lies.

  • Johnny Law

    You can’t talk sense to tea party crazies, it’s a basic wiring flaw…

    As soon as you explained that this had nothing to do with Obama you were branded incorrect by the misguided “patriots” that are ruining this country

  • Derek Diaz

    What makes you think they would be weeded out when the first screening test, a defacto IQ test, was intentionally removed?

    Do you realy want your life in the hands of a chimpanzee?

    Note: if you consider that comment racist, you expose yourself as racist for making the inappropriate association and are obviously a dumb chimp yourself. Wait, was that last jab racist?!?!

  • Derek Diaz

    Which they won’t.

    The very fact they removed a defacto IQ test to let in mental subnormals tells you what your bosses want. Few men today will do what they know is right knowing they will cause themselves trouble with the ant-white racists in charge above them.

  • Derek Diaz

    The Administration, like you, live in denial of evolution and the IQ science literature, that demonstrates conclusively, with zero ambiguity that blacks have very low IQs on average. That is the source of their inability to get these kinds of jobs. What is new, is that forcing them in via a new Affirmative Stealing program is putting my life in danger and anybody who flys.

    The previous posters who upset you were calling attention implicitly to the hatred inculcated in the black race by denying reality on intelligence and instead blaming everything on racisim.

  • Jonathan Fath

    Hey Derek “Deal with it” Diaz,

    The study you are referencing is from the University of Amsterdam. They have only made the top 50 universities globally twice, so I think I’ll take my chances in the sky. Also, I agree with getting rid of the demographic survey, and they did 8 months ago. The barrier study was conducted by a small business and was used unfairly. The parties involved also resigned thanks to the Federal Government getting involved. Way to show up to the gunfight over half a year late without any relevant information. I’ve really been beating this into the dirt.

    Side note, big flaw, the average IQ of a culture does not reflect brain power, activity, or capability. In fact, the IQ test has been outdated for almost 20 years, and is incredibly bias as cited about 86 times more than the above study you mentioned. Not surprisingly, it’s almost as outdated as your armchair anthropology.